The benefits of eating slowly: Obesity
Fast eaters are gaining more weight compared to slow eaters
Since the 2000s, the correlation between weight gain and feeding speed (eat fast / eat slowly) is demonstrated by numerous studies (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13, 17, 18) with statistical population of several thousand people.
Since the year 2008, a prominent question is to identify the population most at risk: adults? children? men? women? It appears that the younger the subjects, the higher the risk for weight gain and the effect on BMI. With particularly significant ratios in children (1, 2, 3). In adults, the risk remains similar in women and men.
The variation in BMI measured in adults shows an average difference of 4 kilograms between the population of fast eaters and slow eaters in adult men.
The specific reasons that lead to this weight gain are poorly described, but at least two physiological processes (delay of the order of 20 minutes to reach satiety, and lipogenesis), hereinafter are likely to play a role.
Satiety installs only after 20 minutes
Eating quickly increases the concentration of calories in the blood.
To lower this concentration quickly, the metabolism has as a preferred mode of action the lipogenesis of transformation of calories into fatty acids in so-called fat cells.
The faster you eat, the more the body produces fat cells.
The Slow Control fork effective for slowing down and chewing more
Links to international studies
- Faster eaters consumed 75 % more energy content than slower eating children and had higher whole-body, and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (Turkey, 2017, 386 children
- A higher rate of eating in early childhood was positively associated with not only current BMI but also BMI measured 1 year later in young Japanese children. (Japan, 2017, 492 pair children / mother)
- Modifying fast eating to a slower pace may help prevent central obesity among adolescents. (USA, 2016, 2 136 children 12 years old)
- Eating quickly is positively associated with excess body weight (Japan, 2015, Synthesis of 23 studies)
- Counseling aimed at slowing the rate of ingestion could be promising behavioral treatments for obese persons (Korea, 2015, 48 adults)
- Increasing portion size led to a larger bite size and faster eating rate, but a slower reduction in eating speed during the meal. (UK, 2015, 37 women overweight)
- Irregular meal pattern and more intra-meal drinking were associated with increased odds of general and abdominal obesity among Iranian adults. (Iran, 2015, 7958 adults)
- Stopping a habit of eating quickly prevents weight gains (Japan, 2013, 3182 Girls, 10 years old)
- Fast eating rates are associated with obesity and other cardiometabolic risk factors (Korea, 2013, 8755 adults)
- The risk of being overweight was 3.93 time higher for male eating quickly than for male eating slowly. (Japan, 2013, 1918 students)
- The proportions of participants who were obese or who had elevated waist circumference levels increased progressively with increases in eating rate. (Japan, 2013, 7275 adults> 40 ans)
- Among boys, fast eating speed significantly increased the odds ratio for overweight, Among girls, fast eating speed led to a significant increase in the OR in those eating until full (Japan, 2013, 3 138 teens).
- Across the categories of eating speed (slow, medium, and fast) a faster eating speed was associated with a higher prevalence of obesity. (Japan, 2012, 2050 male adults)
- The BMI of those who reported eating quickly was 0.8 kg/m² higher than in individuals who reported eating at medium speed. (Japan, 2012, 762 adults with diabetes)
- Odds ratio for overweight in very fast categories was: 4.49 in male children; 5.69 in female children (Japan, 2012, 24 176 children)
- The multivariable odds ratio of being overweight with both eating behaviours compared with neither was: – 3.13 for men – 3.21 for women (Japan, 2008, 3 287 adults)
- Current BMI steadily increased along with the progress of categorical rate of eating. (Japan, 2006, 3 737 adults)
- The rate of eating showed a significant and positive correlation with BMI. (Japan, 2003, 1 695 women adults)
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