The benefits of eating slowly : chewing

The more you chew, the less you eat. Credits Francois Tournay http://francoistournay.fr/

Study 1: VERY SURPRISING

National Institute of Agricultural Research (INRA)

Experience: Researcher Marie-Agnès Peyron asked volunteers to chew their food for a long time and not to swallow it. All of the food in the mouth was spit out and no calories were consumed.

Result: All the volunteers who participated in the experiment left with no feeling of hunger even though they had not eaten anything.

Study 2: Chewing Almonds

University of Indianapolis, USA

Experience: Dr. Cassady recruited 13 volunteers to whom they gave 55 grams of almonds to eat, with instructions on the number of chewings: 10 times, 25 times or 40 times. For the next 3 hours the researchers assessed the appetite of the volunteers.

Result: Those who had chewed 40 times were less hungry than those who had chewed 10 times before swallowing.

Study 3: Estomac + sonde + mastication

University of Wangeningen, Netherlands

Experience: The researchers recruited 26 healthy young adults, with an average age of 21, and followed them with the following treatments:

  • They chewed food without swallowing for 1 minute and their stomach was filled directly via a probe per 100 mL of the same food.
  • They chewed food without swallowing for 1 minute and their stomach was filled directly via a probe with 800 mL of the same food (for the same caloric total).
  • They chewed food without swallowing for 8 minutes and their stomach was filled directly via a probe per 100 mL of the same food.
  • They chewed food without swallowing for 8 minutes and their stomach was filled directly via a probe by 800 mL of the same food (for the same caloric total.
  • They did not chew and the probe did not deliver food to the stomach (control group).

30 minutes after this experience the participants went to the table with instructions to eat until they felt comfortably filled.

Result: The participants who chewed the longest (8 minutes) were the ones who ate the least, regardless of the amount of food infused into the stomach via the catheter. The decrease in caloric intake reached 19% for the group having chewed for 8 minutes.

This work shows that chewing is a more important parameter than the quantity of food ingested in appetite control. It is therefore important to chew our food, especially as part of a dieting.

Sources:
https://www.lanutrition.fr/bien-dans-son-assiette/les-regimes-sante/le-regime-mastication/je-mache-donc-je-maigris
https://www.lanutrition.fr/les-news/macher-plus-pour-maigrir-plus

Chewing to prevent type 2 diabetes

An increase in chewing contributes to a decrease in the glycemic index of chewed foods * (4)!

Another study measures blood biochemistry and finds an action on metabolism with a significant change in glucose and insulin levels * (3).

A statistical study * (6) of 6900 adults between 40 and 74 years old crossed two measures.

  • First, it measured the masticatory performance of the subjects.
  • Then, it measured the occurrence or absence of type 2 diabetes

The occurrence of diabetes is more important in the population that chews poorly (9.9%) compared to the one that chews well (5.2%).

QUALITY OF CHEWING vs OCCURRENCE OF DIABETES

  • Low chewing: 9,90%
  • Moderately low chewing: 8,40%
  • Moderately strong chewing: 7,30%
  • Strong chewing:5,20%

The Slow Control Fork efficient for slowing down and chewing more

Study 2017, 6 people

"The use of this fork, without particular training, by imposing a mastication at a slower frequency, makes it possible to obtain bowls consisting of smaller particles."

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Links to international studies

  1. Increasing texture hardness of gel model foods decreases food intake independent of sweet taste intensity. The higher number of chews and faster eating rate may cause this effect. (Holland, 2017, 58 adults)
  2. Faster eating rates were correlated with larger average bite size, fewer chews per gram and shorter oral exposure time per bite, and with higher energy intakes (2017, Turkey, 386 children)
  3. A higher number of masticatory cycles before swallowing may provide beneficial effects on satiety and facilitate glucose absorption (USA, 2015, 21 male adults)
  4. Eating rice with different feeding tools has different chewing times and amount of food taken per mouthful and then alters the Glycemic Index of the rice (Turkey, 2015, 11 adults)
  5. Increasing the number of chews also prolonged meal duration and reduced eating rate. (USA, 2014, 18 adults)
  6. Higher masticatory performance and slow eating prevent the occurrence of diabetes (Japan, 2013, 6927 adults)
  7. Obese Subjects took more bites, performed fewer chews per bite, and spent less time chewing than did non-obese (USA, 1975, 100 adults)

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